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Citing Business Sources: APA: Business Citations

APA: BUSINESS CITATIONS:

APA rules for this website are taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. Copies of this style manual are available in reference and in the general collection at call number BF76.7 .P83 2010.

The websites listed below will also help you with APA citation format:

   ♦ American Psychological Association: APA Style
   ♦ Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab: APA Style
   ♦ APA Citation Examples
(University of Maryland University College)

From Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition (p. 193):

"You may need to use a reference for a source for which [APA] does not provide specific guidance. In such a case, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format...When in doubt, provide more information rather than less. Because one purpose of listing references is to enable readers to retrieve and use the sources, most entries contain the following elements: author, year of publication, title, and publishing or retrieval data -- all the information necessary for unique identification and library search."


This guide has been compiled by referencing the APA manual, the Purdue OWL website, and by consulting the work of other business librarians who have created guides for business citation. Business citations are not directly addressed in the APA manual, so the decisions on how to create many of these citations have been a matter of interpretation and judgment.

For help with writing and citation format, visit the YSU Writing Center on the lower level of Maag Library.

APA IN-TEXT CITATIONS:

You must provide parenthetical references (in-text citations) for quotes, paraphrases, and summaries used within a paper. The parenthetical reference refers the reader to the complete bibliographic citation on the Reference List at the end of the paper. Each reference cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited within the text.

According to APA guidelines, references are cited within the text using an author-date citation system and are listed alphabetically in the reference list. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's last name (no suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication:

"U.S. imports of certified coffee exploded from 1.3 million pounds in 1999 to almost 45 million pounds in 2005, for a total value of $545 million" (Jaffee, 2014).

When using the author's name in the text, do not include it in the parentheses:

According to Jaffee (2014), "U.S. imports of certified coffee exploded from 1.3 million pounds in 1999 to almost 45 million pounds in 2005, for a total value of $545 million."

For two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text: (Peyser & Mares, 2012).

For three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs: (Thurston, Morris, & Steiman, 2013).
Subsequent citations, include only last name of first author followed by et al. and year: (Thurston et al., 2013).

Six or more authors, cite only last name of first author followed by et al. and year for first and subsequent citations.

Names of groups (corporations, associations, government agencies, etc.) that serve as authors are listed each time they appear in a text citation. If clear enough, group author names may be abbreviated after first citation: (Securities and Exchange Commission [SEC], 2015). Subsequent citations: (SEC, 2015).

Two or more authors with the same last name, include first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs: (D. Jaffee, 2014).

Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

No known author, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually title). Use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

"U.S. imports of certified coffee exploded from 1.3 million pounds in 1999 to almost 45 million pounds in 2005, for a total value of $545 million" (Brewing Justice, 2014).

If no publication date is listed, use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date"): (O'Keefe, n.d.).


Sample Reference List

Curran, S. R., Linton, A., Cooke, A., & Schrank, A. (Eds.). (2009). The global governance of food. New York: Routledge.

Fridell, G. (2007). Fair trade coffee: The prospects and pitfalls of market-driven social justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Fridell, G. (2014). Coffee. Malden, MA: Polity Press.

International Trade Centre. (2011). The coffee exporter's guide (3rd ed.). Geneva: Author.

Jaffee, D. (2014). Brewing justice: Fair trade coffee, sustainability, and survival. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Peyser, R., & Mares, B. (2012). Brewing change: Behind the bean at Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. Shelburne, VT: Wind Ridge

       Publishing.

Thurston, R. W., Morris, J., & Steiman, S. (Eds.). (2013). Coffee: A comprehensive guide to the bean, the beverage, and the industry.

       Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.


Examples of the appropriate in-text citations are included for each type of source listed in the sections below.

APA CITATION BASICS:

♦ APA citation page title: Reference List (centered)

♦ Double-space citations on Reference List page.

♦ Hanging indentation: If a Reference List entry continues to a second line, indent all subsequent lines 5-7 spaces.

♦ Alphabetize your Reference List page by author's last name or title of document if no author name exists. Authors can be
   individuals or groups/organizations.

♦ For an author's first name use only initials: 'Smith, J.', not 'Smith, Jennifer'.

♦ If you have multiple publications by one author from different years, order them earliest to latest.

♦ If no author is listed, move the title to the author position before the publication date.

♦ For edited works, place editors' names in the author position, and put Ed. or Eds. in parentheses after last editor name.

♦ When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of
   publication.

♦ If publication date is not listed, use the abbreviation n.d. (for no date).

♦ Place information about editions, volume numbers, and page numbers in parentheses following the title, with the period
   after the parentheses: (Rev. ed.) or (Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx).

♦ When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

♦ Capitalize only the first word of a title and the subtitle (i.e. the first word after a colon or a dash) and proper nouns.
   Exceptions: Periodical titles (journals, magazines...)

♦ If a source type is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets after the title and any parenthetical
   information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation. Examples: [Company profile], [Industry profile], [Market share
   report], [SWOT analysis], [Data file], [Brochure], [Map], [CD], [Table], [Computer software], [Video webcast]...

♦ If more than one publisher location is given, use the first one listed on the title page or, if specified, the location of the
   publisher's home office.

♦ Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; instead, break the URL before most punctuation.

♦ Do not add a period after a URL.

PRINT BOOKS:

Book with Single Author/Editor:

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A. (Ed.). (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Jaffee, D. (2014). Brewing justice: Fair trade coffee, sustainability, and survival. Oakland, CA: Univ. of California Press.

In-Text Citation: (Jaffee, 2014).


Two Authors/Editors:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A., & Editor, B. (Eds.). (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Peyser, R., & Mares, B. (2012). Brewing change: Behind the bean at Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. Shelburen, VT:  Wind Ridge.

In-Text Citation: (Peyser & Mares, 2012).


Three to Seven Authors/Editors:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author C.  (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A., Editor B., & Editor C. (Eds.). (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Thurston, R. W., Morris, J., & Steiman, S. (Eds.). (2013). Coffee: A comprehensive guide to the bean, the beverage, and the

       industry. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

First In-Text Citation: (Thurston, Morris, & Steiman, 2013).
Subsequent Citations: (Thurston et al., 2013).


Eight or More Authors/Editors:

Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F.,...Author, H. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location:

       Publisher.

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T.,...Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site   usability for the

       blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, pp. 323-335.

In-Text Citation: (Miller et al., 2005).

Note: Eight or more authors: Include the first six authors' names, then three ellipsis points, then the last author's name.

Note: This example is an article, not a book. I could not find a book with 8 authors.


Corporate/Association/Government Agency Author:

Group Author. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

International Trade Centre. (2011). The coffee exporter's guide (3rd ed.). Geneva: Author.

In-Text Citation: (International Trade Centre [ITC], 2011).
Subsequent Citations: (ITC, 2011).

Note: Enclose additional informaton for a publication (edition, report number, volume number) in parentheses after title.
Do not use a period between title and additional information and do not italicize additional information.

Note: When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.


No Author:

Title of work. (Date of Publication). Location: Publisher.

NAICS desk reference: The North American Industry Classification System desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis, IN: JIST.

Note: If no author is listed, move the title to the author position before the publication date.


Chapter/Essay in a Book:

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of work

       (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Coffee house: Coffee Circus. (1997). In A. Shupe (Ed.), Business plans handbook: A compilation of actual business plans developed

       by small businesses throughout North America (Vol. 4, pp. 97-117). New York: Gale Research.

In-Text Citation: ("Coffee house," 1997).

Note: If no author is listed for chapter, move the chapter title to the author position before the publication date.

Moonitz, M. (1977). The environment of accounting. In Mueller, G. G., & Smith, C. H. (Eds.), Accounting: A book of readings

       (2nd ed., p. 31). Hinsdale, Il: The Dryden Press.

In-Text Citation: (Moonitz, 1977).

Note: Use this method for information taken from reference books. 


Multivolume Work:

Author, A. (Year-Year). Title of work (Vols. x-xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Wright, S. (1968-1978). Evolution and the genetics of populations (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

In-Text Citation: (Wright, 1968-1978).

When citing only one volume:

Nash, M. (1993). Malay. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of world cultures (Vol. 5, pp. 174-176). New York, NY: G.K. Hall.

In-Text Citation: (Nash, 1993).

ELECTRONIC BOOKS:

Electronic Book:

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of work. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Langen, N. (2012). Ethics in consumer choice: An empirical analysis based on the example of coffee. Retrieved from Electronic Book

       Center database http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/9783658007591

In-Text Citation: (Langen, 2012).

Stutely, R. (2012). The definitive business plan: The fast track to intelligent planning for executives and entrepreneurs (3rd. ed.).

       Retrieved from Safari Books Online database http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/book/-/9780273761143

In-Text Citation: (Stutely, 2012).

Note: No period after URL or DOI. No hyphen when continuing URL or DOI to next line; break at punctuation only.


Chapter/Entry from an Online Reference Work:

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx).

       Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Author, A. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed.,

       pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Specialty coffee. (2007). In J. A. Malonis & H. M. Selden (Eds.), Encyclopedia of emerging industries (5th ed.). Retrieved

       from Electronic Book Center database http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/eei

In-Text Citation: ("Specialty coffee," 2007).

Note: If no author is listed, move the title to the author position before the publication date.

Note: For in-text citation, use quotation marks around titles of articles or web pages and italicize titles of books, periodicals, etc.

ARTICLES - PRINT & ONLINE:

♦ If no author is listed, move the title to the author position.

For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year and the exact date of the publication (month or month and day),
   separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. If date is given as a season, give the year and the season, separated by a
   comma and enclosed in parentheses.

♦ If no date is available, use n.d. in parentheses.

♦ Journal titles are capitalized (Journal of Psychology), whereas for article titles, only the first word of the title and subtitle and
   any proper nouns are capitalized.

♦ Enclose additional information given on a publication (e.g., edition, report number, volume number) in parentheses after the
   title:

Development of entry-level test to select FBI special agents (Publication No. FR-PRD-94-06).

♦ Volume number is italicized, but issue number in parentheses is not.

♦ If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses after the volume number (no space between
   volume number and parentheses with issue number.

♦ Periodical publisher names and locations are generally not included in references.

♦ Include digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned.If no DOI is assigned, and you retrieved it online, include the home page
   URL for the periodical.

♦ Although APA does not require listing the database information, this guide does recommend listing the database title for reasons
   of clarity and retrieval.

♦ Use DOIs and perma-links where available. No period after DOIs or URLs.

♦ Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time.


Scholarly Journal Article - Print:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Daunfeldt, S., & Rudholm, N. (2014, September). Does shelf-labeling of organic foods increase sales? Results from a

       natural experiment. Journal Of Retailing & Consumer Services, 21(5), pp. 804-811.

In-Text Citation: (Daunfeldt & Rudholm, 2014).


Scholarly Journal Article - Online:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx. Retrieved

       from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Howard, P., & Jaffee, D. (2013, January 4). Tensions between firm size and sustainability goals: Fair trade coffee in the United

       States. Sustainability, 5(1), pp. 72-89. Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/5/1/72

In-Text Citation: (Howard & Jaffee, 2013).


Scholarly Journal Article - Database:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

       doi:xxxxxxxx

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx. Retrieved

       from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Daunfeldt, S., & Rudholm, N. (2014, September). Does shelf-labeling of organic foods increase sales? Results from a natural

       experiment. Journal Of Retailing & Consumer Services, 21(5), pp. 804-811. Retrieved from Electronic Journal Center database

       doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.06.009

In-Text Citation: (Daunfeldt & Rudholm, 2014).

Daunfeldt, S., & Rudholm, N. (2014, September). Does shelf-labeling of organic foods increase sales? Results from a

       natural experiment. Journal Of Retailing & Consumer Services, 21(5), pp. 804-811. Retrieved from Electronic Journal

       Center database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=97577914&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Daunfeldt & Rudholm, 2014).

Note: No period after URL or DOI. No hyphen when continuing URL or DOI to next line; break at punctuation only.

Note: Although APA does not require listing the database information, this guide does recommend listing the database title for reasons of clarity and retrieval.

Note: Digital Object Identifiers identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. DOIs are more stable than URLs. A publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically. You can usually find a DOI in the article record. DOIs can be entered at doi.org or crossref.org to locate an article.

Note: Some of the databases will supply a DOI, but at this time most of them do not.


Magazine/Trade Publication Article - Print:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Summers, N. (2014, April 14). Keurig throws cold water on short sellers. Business Week, (4374), pp. 41-42.

In-Text Citation: (Summers, 2014).


Magazine/Trade Publication Article - Web:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical/Website, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

       Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Tobey, J. S. (2014, March 11). Keurig Green Mountain: Time to double up. Forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites

       /johntobey/2014/03/11/keurig-green-mountain-time-to-double-up/

In-Text Citation: (Tobey, 2014).


Magazine/Trade Publication Article - Database:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx. Retrieved

       from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Summers, N. (2014, April 14). Keurig throws cold water on short sellers. Business Week, (4374), pp. 41-42. Retrieved from

       Business Source Complete database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=95573784&site

       =ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Summers, 2014).


Newspaper Article - Print:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

In-Text Citation: (Schwartz, 1993).

Note: If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.


Newspaper Article - Web:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical/Website, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

       Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

In-Text Citation: (Brody, 2007).

Note: Give the URL of the home page to avoid nonworking URLs.


Newspaper Article - Database:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx. Retrieved

       from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Strom, S. (2014, April 9). Coffee and tea company to start selling recyclable single-serving pods. The New York Times (Late Edition -

       Final), p. 3. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1

       /getDocCui?lni=5BXY-8TH1-JBG3-60SH&csi=6742&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

In-Text Citation: (Strom, 2014).


Special Issue or Section in a Journal:

Haney, C., & Wiener, R. L. (Eds.). (2004). Capital punishment in the United States [Special issue]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law,

       10(4).

In-Text Citation: (Haney & Wiener, 2001).

Greenfield, P., & Yan, Z. (Eds.). (2006). Children, adolescents, and the Internet [Special section]. Developmental Psychology, 42,

       pp. 391-394. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.3.391

In-Text Citation: (Greenfield & Yan, 2006).

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS:

Conference Proceedings - Database:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of presentation/paper. Title of Proceedings, Volume(Issue), pp.

       xxx-xxx. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxx

Zhao, C., Wang, X., Ren, J., & Zhu, A. (2012). A study of the role competitive intelligence in technology innovation. Annual

       International Conference On Innovation & Entrepreneurship, pp. 61-66. Retrieved from Entrepreneurial Studies Source

       database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ent&AN=79349103&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Zhao, Wang, Ren, & Zhu, 2012).
Subsequent Citations: (Zhao et al., 2012).

Rollins, B., Anitsal, I., & Anitsal, M. (2012, October). Viral marketing for entrepreneurs. Allied Academies International Conference:

       Proceedings of The Academy of Entrepreneurship, 18(2), p. 49. Retrieved from Entrepreneurial Studies Source database

       http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ent&AN=82207059&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Rollins, Anitsal, & Anitsal, 2012).
Subsequent Citations: (Rollins et al., 2012).

Note: For three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs: (Thurston, Morris, & Steiman, 2013). Subsequent citations, include only last name of first author followed by et al. and year: (Thurston et al., 2013).

WEBSITES:

Entire Website:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Website title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. (2016). Keurig. Retrieved from http://www.keurig.com/

Page from a Website:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Page title. Website title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Brown, A. (2014, March 3). Forbes billionaires: Full list of the richest Americans. Forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com

       /sites/abrambrown/2014/03/03/forbes-billionaires-full-list-of-the-richest-americans/

In-Text Citation: (Brown, 2014).

Jenkins, R. (n.d.). Sample business plan: Moose Mountain Cafe. New Hampshire Small Business Development Center. Retrieved from

       http://www.nhsbdc.org/sample-business-plan-moose-mountain-cafe

In-Text Citation: (Jenkins, n.d.).

Ford Motor Company. (n.d.). Our company. Retrieved from http://corporate.ford.com/company.html

In-Text Citation: (Ford Motor Company, n.d.).

Note: When a web page doesn't include a personal author, use the name of the company or organization instead. If you can't find such a name, use the domain name as the author

Note: Use n.d. (no date) when no date is available.


Document from a Website:

Federal Trade Commission. (2014, March 27). FTC proposes changes to fuel rating rule [Press release]. Retrieved from

      http://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2014/03/ftc-proposes-changes-fuel-rating-rule

First In-Text Citation: (Federal Trade Commission [FTC], 2014).
Subsequent Citations: (FTC, 2014).

Note: If a source type is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets after the title and any parenthetical information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation. Examples: [Company profile], [Industry profile], [Market share report], [SWOT analysis], [Data file], [Brochure], [Map], [CD], [Table], [Computer software], [Video webcast]...

GOVERNMENT REPORTS & WEBSITES:

Print Government Report:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Page title. Website title. Location: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Health, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Department of Health, 2003).


Online Government Report:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

U.S. Department of Health, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdt

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Department of Health, 2003).

Note: If the issuing organization assigned a number to the report, give that number in parentheses after the title.


NAICS Codes:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). 2012 NAICS definition, 311920, coffee and tea manufacturing. Retrieved from

http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=311920&search=2012%20NAICS%20Search

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012a).*


SIC Codes:

U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (1987). SIC description for 2251.

Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/pls/imis/sic_manual.display?id=488&tab=description

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Department of Labor [US DOL], 1987).
Subsequent Citations: (US DOL, 1987).


Occupational Employment Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics):

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013, May). National industry-specific occupational employment and wage estimates: NAICS

482100 - Rail transportation. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics4_482100.htm

In-Text Citation: (Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], 2013).
Subsequent Citations: (BLS, 2013).


Census Bureau Population Data:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Guildford County, North Carolina -- ACS demographic and housing estimates

(1-year estimates) [Table]. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012b).*

Note: If a source type is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets after the title and any parenthetical information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation.


Economic Census:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Retail trade: Geographic area series: Summary statistics for the United States, states, metro

areas, counties, and places: 2012. [Table]. Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012c).*


County Business Patterns:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Forsyth County, North Carolina -- 2011 county business patterns (NAICS). [Table]. Retrieved

from http://censtats.census.gov/

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012d).*


Consumer Expenditure Survey (Bureau of Labor Statistics):

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Race of reference person: Shares of average annual expenditures and sources of

income, Consumer Expenditure Survey 2012 [Table]. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/cex/2012/aggregate

/race.pdf

In-Text Citation: (Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], 2012).
Subsequest Citations: (BLS, 2012).


World DataBank:

World Bank. (2014). CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Data retrieved from World DataBank: World Development

Indicators database http://databank.worldbank.org

In-Text Citation: (World Bank, 2012).

Note: Although APA does not require the listing database information, this guide does recommend listing the database title for reasons of clarity and retrieval.


Data Sets:

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

In Text-Citation: (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD], 2008).
Subsequent citations: (HUD, 2008).


*Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

ANNUAL / 10-K REPORTS:

Annual Report from Company Website:

Company Name. (Date of Publication). Title of report. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Keurig Green Mountain. (2014). Fiscal 2014 annual report. Retrieved from http://investor.keuriggreenmountain.com/financials.cfm

In-Text Citation: (Keurig Green Mountain, 2014)

Note: No period after URL. No hyphen when continuing URL to next line; break at punctuation only.


Annual Report from SEC EDGAR Website:

Company Name. (Date of Publication). Title of report. Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx

Keurig Green Mountain. (2014). Form 10-K annual report for the fiscal year ended September 27, 2014. Retrieved from SEC EDGAR

       website: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/909954/000104746914009384/a2222198z10-k.htm

In-Text Citation: (Keurig Green Mountain, 2014).

Note: Identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if the publisher is not the author: Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx


For annual reports/SEC filings found within databases, see the individual database sections below.

BUSINESS INSIGHTS: GLOBAL:

For Business Insights: Global article citation format, see Articles - Print & Online above.

Note: Although APA does not require listing the database information, this guide does recommend listing the database title for reasons of clarity and retrieval.


Industry Report from a Reference Source:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Industry report]. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed., pp.

       xxx-xxx). Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Roasted coffee [Industry report]. In Encyclopedia of American industries (6th ed.).

       Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database http://bi.galegroup.com/global/article/GALE|RN2501400044

       /ccaefe875184bdefecd4f70bf4b7ed17?u=youn55736

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2014a).*

Note: If a source type is important for retrieval, provide it in brackets after the title and any parenthetical information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation: [Industry profile], [Company profile], [Market share report].


Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Keuring Green Mountain Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database

       http://bi.galegroup.com/global/company/361332?u=youn55736

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2014b).*


Company History from Reference Source:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved

       from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2012). Keurig, Incorporated. In J. P. Pederson (Ed.), International directory of company histories (Vol. 137).

       Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database http://bi.galegroup.com/global/article/GALE|I2501316297

       /6999a1ca2315d5c2d94db7c0e9976c15?u=youn55736

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2012).


Market Share Report:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of chapter or entry [Market share report]. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed.,

       pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2016). Top coffee drink brands, 2014 [Market share report]. In R. S. Lazich (Ed.), Market share reporter (2016

       ed.). Retrieved from Business Insights: Global database http://bi.galegroup.com/global/article/GALE|I2502051589

       /d07601908b2af922ca94d82c65aaaf97?u=youn55736

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2016).


SWOT Report:

GlobalData. (2015, April 6). Starbucks Corporation - financial and strategic analysis review. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global

       database http://callisto.ggsrv.com/imgsrv/FastFetch/UBER1/239921_GDRT33172FSA

In-Text Citation: (GlobalData, 2015).


*Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

BUSINESS SOURCE COMPLETE:

For Business Source Complete article citation format, see Articles - Print & Online above.


MarketLine Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

MarketLine. (2015, June 8). Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database

      http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=dmhls&AN=319B71E9-2327-4F6A-A641-986759BDBD93&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (MarketLine, 2015a).*


SWOT Analysis:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [SWOT analysis]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

MarketLine. (2015, June 18). Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. [SWOT analysis]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database

       http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=108401515&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (MarketLine, 2015b).*


MarketLine Industry Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

MarketLine. (2014, October). Global hot drinks [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database

       http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=99556016&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (MarketLine, 2014).


Barnes Industry Report:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

C. Barnes & Co. (2014). BARNES reports: Coffee & tea mfg. industry (NAICS 31192) [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Business Source

       Complete database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=94321685&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (C. Barnes & Co., 2014).


Market Research Handbook:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document. In Title of work (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from Title database

       http://www.xxxxxxxx

Richard K. Miller & Associates. (2014). Coffee [Market research report]. In Restaurant, food & beverage market research handbook

       (pp. 462-464). Retrieved from Business Source Complete database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct

       =true&db=bth&AN=95942201&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Richard K. Miller & Associates, 2014).


Case Study:

Author. (Date of publication). Title of document [Case study]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Datamonitor. (2005, April). Single serve coffee pod case study: The rise of the one cup coffee trend (Procter & Gamble, Kraft and

       Nestle) [Case study]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct

       =true&db=bth&AN=21120536&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (Datamonitor, 2005).


Country Report:

IHS Global Inc. (2015, June 24). Argentina country monitor: Country reports - Argentina. Retrieved from Business Source Complete

       database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=108520582&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (IHS Global Inc., 2015).

PRS Group, Inc. (2014, September). Political risk yearbook: Argentina country report. Retrieved from Business Source Complete

       database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=100605587&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (PRS Group, Inc., 2014).


*Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

D&B MILLION DOLLAR DATABASE: FIRST RESEARCH:

First Research Industry Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

First Research. (2015, July 20). Coffee & tea manufacturing [Industry profile]. Retrieved from D&B Million Dollar Database

       http://mergent.firstresearch-learn.com/industry_full.aspx?pid=239

In-Text Citation: (First Research, 2015).

DEMOGRAPHICS NOW:

Demographic Report for a Specific Geographical Area:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Table]. Retrieved Date from Demographics Now database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Demographic snapshot comparison for Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metro [Table].

       Retrieved August 25, 2015 from Demographics Now database http://library.demographicsnow.com

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2014).

Note: Use retrieval date, since demographic information in this database can change over time.

GALE DIRECTORY LIBRARY:

Market Share Reporter:

Author. (Date of publication). Title of document. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from

       Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2015). Retail single-serve coffee sales, 2013 [Market share report]. In R. Lazich & V. L. Burton (Eds.), Market

       Share Reporter (25th ed.). Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database http://find.galegroup.com/gdl/start.do?prodId=GDL

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2015a).*


Brands and Their Companies:

 Author. (Date of publication). Title of document. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (page numbers, edition, or volume

       number). Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Gale Cengage Learning. (2015). Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. In P. Geeseman (Ed.), Brands and their companies (39th ed.).

       Retrieved from Gale Directory Library database http://find.galegroup.com/gdl/start.do?prodId=GDL

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2015b).*


*Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

GALE VIRTUAL REFERENCE LIBRARY:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of work (Vol./ed., pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx


Business Plans Handbook:

Gale Cengage Learning. (2005). Coffee roaster: Venezia Coffee Roasters [Business plan]. In A. Shupe (Ed.), Business plans handbook

       (Vol. 4, pp. 119-145). Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library database http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id

       =GALE%7CCX3440000016&v=2.1&u=youn55736&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=b70363fd3246c45cd9b60db469d7f612

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2005).


Encyclopedia of Emerging Markets:

Gale Cengage Learning. (2013). Columbia. In L. V. Burton (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Emerging Markets (pp. 87-92). Retrieved from Gale

       Virtual Reference Library http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2759800030&v=2.1&u=youn55736&it=r&p=GVRL&sw

       =w&asid=124c17a6890ea637b0aab6bee49d2783

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2013a).*


Encyclopedia of Global Brands:

Gale Cengage Learning. (2013). Green Mountain Coffee. In P. Geeseman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Brands (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp.

       458-461).Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2979600112&v=2.1&u

       =youn55736&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=60a605f68384ac71e8d26d1be89c6b7b

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2013b).*


Encyclopedia of Global Industries:

Gale Cengage Learning. (2011). Coffee, roasted [Industry profile]. In L. M. Pearce (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Industries (5th ed.,

       pp. 424-435). Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX1930300062&v

       =2.1&u=youn55736&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=053635397d7d6dfc163110ed1d818cd3

In-Text Citation: (Gale Cengage Learning, 2011).


*Two sources by the same author or organization in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

LEXISNEXIS ACADEMIC:

For LexisNexis Academic article citation format, see Articles - Print & Online above.


LexisNexis Academic Article:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp. xxx-xxx. Retrieved

       from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Eisinger, J. (2013, September 10). Seeking answers from Green Mountain Coffee. The New York Times, p. 6. Retrieved from

      LexisNexis Academic database http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=599Y-DS01-DXY4

       -X3WY&csi=6742&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

 In-Text Citation: (Eisinger, 2013).

Platt, E. (2014, May 14). Keurig gets a lift as confident Coca-Cola raises stake in group. Financial Times (London, England), p. 23.

       Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=5C6C

       -CG81-JBFS-D226&csi=293847&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

In-Text Citation: (Platt, 2014).


LexisNexis Academic Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

LexisNexis. (n.d.). Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved August 26, 2015 from LexisNexis Academic database

       http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/

In-Text Citation: (LexisNexis, n.d.).

Note: Company profiles are not dated in LexisNexis Academic, so use n.d. (no date) for publication date and add the retrieval date to the "Retrieved from" section. Also use n.d. for the in-text citation.

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for company profiles in LexisNexis Academic. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/


SEC Filing from LexisNexis Academic:

Company Name. (Date of Publication). Title of report. Retrieved from Title database: http://http://www.xxxxxxxx

Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. (2015, June 29). Form 8-K. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database http://www.lexisnexis.com

       /hottopics/lnacademic/

In-Text Citation: (Keurig Green Mountain, Inc., 2015).

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for documents within company profiles in LexisNexis Academic. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/


Hoover's Company Records from LexisNexis Academic:

Author. (Date of Publication). Company Name. Title of work. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Hoover's Inc. (2015, August 25). Keurig, Incorporated. Hoover's company records - In-depth records. Retrieved from LexisNexis

       Academic database http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=4G6T-XJH0-TWH4-629Y&csi

       =220620&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

In-Text Citation: (Hoover's Inc., 2015).

MERGENT ONLINE:

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for company profiles in Mergent Online. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://www.mergentonline.com


Mergent Online Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Mergent, Inc. (n.d.). Keurig Green Mountain Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved August 27, 2015 from Mergent Online database

       http://www.mergentonline.com

In-Text Citation: (Mergent, Inc., n.d.).

Note: Company profiles are not dated in Mergent Online, so use n.d. (no date) for publication date and add the retrieval date to the "Retrieved from" section. Also use n.d. for the in-text citation.


10-K/Annual Report from Mergent Online Company Profile:

Company Name. (Date of Publication). Title of report. Retrieved from Title database: http://http://www.xxxxxxxx

Keurig Green Mountain, Inc. (2014, November 19). Form 10-K annual report for the fiscal year ended September 27, 2014.

Retrieved from Mergent Online database http://www.mergentonline.com

In-Text Citation: (Keurig Green Mountain, Inc., 2014).

Note: The official date for an SEC filing can usually be found at the end of the document.


Financial Statements from Mergent Online Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of report. Retrieved from Title database: http://http://www.xxxxxxxx

Mergent, Inc. (2014, September 27). Keurig Green Mountain Inc. as reported annual balance sheet. Retrieved from

Mergent Online database http://www.mergentonline.com

In-Text Citation: (Mergent, Inc., 2014).


Mergent Online Industry Report:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx 

Mergent, Inc. (2015, May). North America food & beverage sectors [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Mergent Online

database http://www.mergentonline.com

In-Text Citation: (Mergent, Inc., 2015).


Mergent Online Country Report:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Dun & Bradstreet. (2015 August). Country insight report: Argentina. Retrieved from Mergent Online database

http://www.mergentonline.com

In-Text Citation: (Dun & Bradstreet, 2015).

NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WORKING PAPERS:

Working Paper:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of Publication). Title of working paper (Paper number). Retrieved from Title database

       http://www.xxxxxxxx

Yang, M., Kueng, L., & Hong, B. (2015, January). Business strategy and the management of firms (NBER Working Paper 20846).

       Retrieved from NBER Working Papers database http://http://www.nber.org/papers/

In-Text Citation: (Yang, Kueng, & Hong, 2015).

Note: If the issuing organization assigned a number to the report, give that number in parentheses after the title.

REFERENCE USA:

Reference USA Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Infogroup, Inc. (n.d.). Keurig Green Mountain Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved August 27, 2015 from Reference USA database

       http://www.referenceusa.com

In-Text Citation: (Infogroup, Inc., n.d.).

Note: Company profiles are not dated in Reference USA, so use n.d. (no date) for publication date and add the retrieval date to the "Retrieved from" section. Also, use n.d. for the in-text citation.

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for company profiles in Reference USA. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://www.referenceusa.com

STANDARD & POOR'S NETADVANTAGE:

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for company profiles in S&P NetAdvantage. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://www.netadvantage.standardandpoors.com


Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage Company Profile:

Author. (Date of Publication). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

S&P Capital IQ. (n.d.). Keurig Green Mountain [Company profile]. Retrieved August 27, 2015 from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

       database http://www.netadvantage.standardandpoors.com

In-Text Citation: (S&P Capital IQ, n.d.).

Note: Company profiles are not dated in S&P NetAdvantage, so use n.d. (no date) for publication date and add the retrieval date to the "Retrieved from" section. Also use n.d. for the in-text citation.


Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage Industry Survey:

Author. (Date of publication). Title of document [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx 

Agnese, J. (2015, May). Industry surveys: Beverages [Industry profile]. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage database

       http://www.netadvantage.standardandpoors.com

In-Text Citation: (Agnese, 2015).


Standard & Poor's Stock Report:

Author. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

S&P Capital IQ. (2015, August 22). Keurig Green Mountain Inc. stock report. Retrieved from Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage

       database http://www.netadvantage.standardandpoors.com

In-Text Citation: (S&P Capital IQ, 2015).

VALUE LINE RESEARCH CENTER:

Value Line Investment Survey:

Author. (Date of Publication). Company Name. Title of work. Retrieved from Title database http://www.xxxxxxxx

Value Line, Inc. (2015, August 28). Starbucks Corp. Value Line Investment Survey. Retrieved from Value Line Research Center

        database http://research.valueline.com

In-Text Citation: (Value Line, Inc., 2015).

Note: Report publication dates for VLIS can always be found at the end of the "Commentary" section.

Note: Permalinks (durable URLs) are not provided for company profiles in Value Line Research Center. Use the permalink for the overall database instead: http://research.valueline.com