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Citation Resources: References

Citation Resources Guide Contents

Books: Print & Online

Book: General

AuthorLastname, F. M. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. M. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. M. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Print Book

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Electronic Book

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Print Book: 2 Authors

Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Book:
No Author

Note: No author, begin citation with title.

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Multivolume Work

When citing entire multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the genetics of populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of gene frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the genetics of populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism

Entry in Online Reference Work: No Author

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/trebuchet

 For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Articles: Print & Online

Journal: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Vol, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.

Journal Article with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article with URL

Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40, 156-159.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Journal with Multiple Issues Per Volume

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.

Magazine Article

Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Online Magazine Article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Newspaper Article

Note: For newspapers, precede page numbers with p. or pp. If article is on discontinuous pages, list all page numbers and separate with commas.

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

 For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Media

Entire Album

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Song

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Recording by Artist Other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To kill a mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

YouTube Video

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
Video

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from http://www.learningseed.com/

Episode from TV Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Images & Tables Retrieved Online

If you use an image, table, or figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure.

Online Map

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf

 List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

 For additional examples, see pages 209-210 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Other Online Sources

Online Posting: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

Note: If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.

Entire Website

It is sufficient to give the website address in the text (in parentheses).

Post in Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retreived from http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Post to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.

Online Image

Owner/author. (Publish date or n.d.). Title of image in italics [image's media - photograph, painting, outdoor mural..]. Retrieved from URL (no period at the end)

Munch, Edvard. 1910. The Scream [painting]. Retrieved from http://www.munch.museum.no

 For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Performances & Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. The same is true of live performances.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.

M. E. Daniels, Jr. (personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that . . .

(YSU Dance Ensemble, performance, December 13, 2012)

If you are citing a recording or archived copy of the performance or personal communication, these forms are recoverable and should be referenced in your Works Cited list as a video, online forum post, tape recording, etc.