Chicago Manual of Style: Bibliographic Format for References
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Documentary-Note Style: Reference List
Use the First Note form the first time the work is cited in your paper. Use an abbreviated form for subsequent
· If only one work by a cited author is used: 4. Gelman, 144.
· If more than one work by a cited author is used: 4. Gelman, Red State, 144.
Alphabetize your bibliography by the first item in the entry. Note that authors’ names are last name, first name in the
bibliography. If the work has no identifiable author, start the citation with the work’s title.
Book, single author:
First Note: 1. Catherine Delafield, Women’s Diaries as Narrative in the Nineteenth-Century Novel
(Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009), 145.
Bibliography: Delafield, Catherine. Women’s Diaries as Narrative in the Nineteenth-Century Novel.
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009.
Book, two or three authors: list authors in the same order they’re listed on the title page, not alphabetically
First Note: 2. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Superfreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic
Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance (New York: William Morrow,
Bibliography: Levitt, Steven D., and Stephen J. Dubner. Superfreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic
Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance. New York: William
Book, more than three authors: use the first author listed on the title page, followed by ‘and others’
First Note: 3. Andrew Gelman and others, Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why
Americans Vote the Way They Do (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008), 128-9.
Bibliography: Gelman, Andrew and others. Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State: Why Americans
Vote the Way They Do. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Book chapter/work in an anthology:
First Note: 4. Christine De Vinne, "Religion under Revolution in Ourika," in Approaches to Teaching
Duras's Ourika, ed. Mary Ellen Birkett and Christopher Rivers (New York, NY: Modern
Language Association of America, 2009), 41.
Bibliography: De Vinne, Christine. "Religion under Revolution in Ourika." In Approaches to Teaching Duras's
Ourika, edited by Mary Ellen Birkett and Christopher Rivers, 37-44. New York, NY:
Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
Article from a journal: published by professionals and academics, for a professional audience
First Note: 5. Tom Buchanan, “Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European
Societies, 1960-1980,” Journal of Contemporary History 44, no. 2 (2009): 372.
Bibliography: Buchanan, Tom. “Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European
Societies, 1960-1980.” Journal of Contemporary History 44, no. 2 (2009): 371-373.
Two or more authors: list authors in the same order they’re listed in the journal, or use “and others” for more than
three authors, as for books
Article from a magazine: published by professional journalists, for a general audience
First Note: 6. Jon Meacham, "The Stakes? Well, Armageddon, For One," Newsweek, October 12, 2009,
Bibliography: Meacham, Jon. "The Stakes? Well, Armageddon, For One." Newsweek, October 12, 2009.
Article from a newspaper:
First Note: 7. Tyler Kepner, “A Battering of Santana Saves the Yankees' Weekend,” New York Times,
June 15, 2009, Section D, Final edition.
Bibliography: Kepner, Tyler. “A Battering of Santana Saves the Yankees' Weekend.” New York Times, June
15, 2009, Section D, Final edition.
Article from an encyclopedia: Cite an article from a well-known encyclopedia in the notes, but not in the
bibliography. If the encyclopedia is arranged alphabetically, do not include the page or volume numbers. Omit
publication information, but include the edition if you are not using the first edition of the work. Put the article title, in
quotes, after the abbreviation s.v. (sub versa, “under the word.”)
First Note: 8. Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th. ed., s.v. “Gilbert Keith Chesterton.”
An article from a lesser-known encyclopedia should be cited with publication information:
First Note: 9. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, ed. Richard C. Martin (New York: Macmillan
Reference USA, 2004), s.v. “Vernacular Islam.”
Bibliography: Martin, Richard C., ed. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. New York: Macmillan
Reference USA. 2004.
Websites (not online journals): If possible, determine content author, page title, site title or site owner, and the
URL. As with encyclopedias, cite the web site in the notes only, or, if your paper does not have notes, include the site
in the bibliography.
First Note: 10. University of Georgia, "Points of Pride," University of Georgia,
http://www.uga.edu/profile/pride.html (accessed October 21, 2009).
Bibliography: University of Georgia. “Points of Pride” University of Georgia,
Film: Cite a film like a book, naming the screenwriter as the author and adding the media type (DVD, VHS, etc.) after
the film title. If you’re citing a single scene, put the name or scene number in quotes at the beginning of the citation.
Cite a commentary track with its author and title.
First Note: 11. Beverly Cross, Clash of the Titans, DVD. Directed by Desmond Davis (Buckinghamshire,
England: MGM, 1981).
Bibliography: Cross, Beverly. Clash of the Titans. DVD. Directed by Desmond Davis. Buckinghamshire,
England: MGM, 1981.
Bibliography: “Grandma Millie.” Peter Elkind, Alex Gibney, and Bethany McLean. Enron: The Smartest Guys
in the Room. Film. Directed by Alex Gibney. New York: Jigsaw Productions, 2005.
Bibliography: Maurissa Tancharoen and Jed Whedon. “Nobody’s Asian in the Movies.” Maurissa
Tancharoen and others. Dr. Horrible’s Singalong Blog. DVD. Directed by Joss
Whedon. Los Angeles, CA: Timescience Bloodclub, 2008.
Additional information about Chicago style can be found at their web site: