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CITATIONS: How to Cite Sources for Your Paper: Works Cited

Assistance with using citing styles for a research paper

Standard MLA - Eighth Edition (2016)

MLA no longer considers the type of resource when creating a citation. They are all done the same way and no longer include publisher location or medium. Here is the standard format:

Author. Title of Source. Title of Container, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, location (pages/URL/etc.).


Book: General AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname. Title. Edition, Publisher, Year.

Single Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book: Two or more works by Same Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968.

Two Authors

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004.

Three or More Authors

Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed., Wiley, 1988.

Note: You may also include full names of all the authors in the order listed on the title page.

No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. JIST Works, 2000.

Book: Multivolume

If using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols., U of Chicago P, 1968-78.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol. 2, U of Chicago P, 1969.

If the one volume you are using has its own individual title, you may cite the book without reference to the other volumes.

Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. U of Chicago P, 1969.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum. Greenwood P, 2005, pp. 47-64.

Print and Online Articles

Journal: General AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname. "Article Title." Journal Title, vol., no., year, pp.

Journal with Volume Numbers

Graham, Sarah. “Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies, vol. 40, no. 2, 2006, pp. 418-19.

Online Journal

If you only consulted the online version, ignore the date of the print publication.

Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist--and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2016,

Online Journal with DOI

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Journal with only Issue Numbers

Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. “Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships.” Journal of Marketing vol. 70, 2006, pp. 154-69.

Magazine (published week or every two weeks)

Reed, Stanley. “Seeing Past the War.” Business Week, 21 Aug. 2006, p. 35.


Seward, Zachary. “Colleges Expand Early Admissions.” Wall Street Journal, 14 Dec. 2006, Eastern ed., pp. D1-D2.

Other Online Works

Online Article:

Quade, Alex. "Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.", 19 Mar. 2007,

Online Article with no Author:

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio, 20 July 2007,


Liu, Alan, editor. Voice of the Shuttle. 21 Feb. 2008,

Web Page:

Liu, Alan. "Teaching Resources." Voice of the Shuttle, 21 Oct. 2016,

Online Map:

For Google Maps, use the Short URL.

"Maplewood, New Jersey." Google Maps, 23 July 2007,

Tweet (Twitter Post):

@smithdogg. "This has sure been a hot summer." Twitter, 12 August 2016, 2:36 p.m.,

Email Message:

Boyle, Anthony T. "Re: Utopia." Received by Daniel J. Cahill, 21 June 1997.

PDF File:

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. "Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing." CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011,

Recordings, Performances, and Other Media

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Personal Interview

Bush, George W. Personal Interview. 10 Feb. 2007.


E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1982.

YouTube Video

Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." YouTube, 9. Sept. 2010,

TV Episode

“The Soup Nazi.” Seinfeld, season 7, episode 6, Castle Rock Entertainment, 2 Nov. 1995.

TV Series Seinfeld. Created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, Castle Rock Entertainment, 2006.

TV Episode on DVD

"Hush." 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, episode 10, Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3.

Entire Albums

The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band, Capitol Records, 1967.

Individual Songs or Tracks

Sinatra, Frank. “Strangers in the Night.” My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra, Warner, 1996.

Spoken Word Recording

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Narrated by Sally Darling, Recorded Books, 1988.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Oliver Ditson, 1932.


Irelan, Scott, director. RENT, performance by YSU University Theater, 16 Nov. 2012, Youngstown State University.

Lecture or Address

A lecture heard in person may be indicated as such:

Atwood, Margaret. "Silencing the Scream." Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec. 1993, Royal York Hotel, Toronto. Lecture.

Original Artwork

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Photographic Reproduction of Artwork

For pictures of artwork in a book:

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, edited by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, 10th ed., Harcourt Brace, 939.

Online Images (web only)

For web-only images, cite the image followed by the website. Begin with the artist or their username:

brandychloe. "Great Horned Owl Family." Webshots, 5 Nov. 2009.