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Citation Resources: Works Cited



MLA no longer considers the format of a resource (book, article, website, etc.) when creating a citation. Citations deal with facts that are common to most works, such as author, title, etc. Place of publication* or format of the resource are no longer included.

MLA standard citation format:

Author. Title of source. Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors, Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages, paragraphs, URL or DOI). Title of 2nd container (database, streaming service, etc.), Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.

*Still use the place of publication for books published before 1900.


Book: General Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Edition, Publisher, Publication date.

Book: One Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book: Two or More Works by Same Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968.

Book: Two Authors

Note: Include authors in the order in which they are presented in the work.

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004.

Book: Three or More Authors

Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed., Wiley, 1988.

Book with Author and Editor

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

Book with Corporate Author

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

Note: If a work is published by an organization that is also the author, begin entry with the title and list the organization as the publisher.

Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America. National Endowment for the Arts, June 2004.

Book with No Author

Note: Begin citation with title.

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. JIST Works, 2000.

Book with Editor(s) Instead of Author

Nunberg, Geoffrey, editor. The Future of the Book. U of California P, 1996.

Holland, Merlin, and Rupert Hart-Davis, editors. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt, 2000.
Electronic Books within a Database

Note:  A stand-alone work, such as a book, is self-contained, so the database would be considered the second container.

Gikandi, Simon. Ngugi wa Thiong'o. Cambridge UP, 2000. ACLS Humanities E-book,

Book Translated from Another Language

Note: If you want to emphasize the translator, treat the translator as the author and put the name of the creator of the work in the other contributors position.

Peavear, Richard, and Larissa Volokhonsky, translators. Crime and Punishment. By Feodor Dostoevsky, Vintage eBooks, 1993.

Sullivan, Alan, and Timothy Murphy, translators. Beowulf. Edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.

Note: If you want to emphasize the work, cite it as you would any other book. Add "translated by" with name(s) of translator(s).

Foucault, Michael. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Anthology or Collection

Note: For an entire anthology or collection, list editor(s).

Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Chapter, Poem or Essay in a Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, Greenwood P, 2005, pp. 47-64.

Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

Note: Cite the name of the author then the part being cited and title of work and author. If writer of part being cited is different from the work's author, cite full name of work's author after the word "by."

Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture, by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.

Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv.

Article in a Reference Book

Note: Cite the same as a work in a collection but do not include publisher information.

"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1997.

Multivolume Works

Note: If you cite one volume of a multivolume set, indicate the volume number after the title or after the editor or translator.

Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2nd ed., vol. 2, Oxford UP, 2002.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Note: If using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes. If published over several years, give the range of years.

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols., U of Chicago P, 1968-78.

Note: If the one volume you are using has its own individual title, cite the book without reference to the other volumes.

Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. U of Chicago P, 1969.

Books with More Than One Edition

Note: If a book has more than one version, identify the version you are using.

Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed., Oxford UP, 2007.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Cheyfitz, Eric. The Poetics of Imperialism: Translation and Colonization from The Tempest to Tarzan. Expanded ed., U of Pennsylvania P, 1997.

Miller, Casey, and Kate Swift. Words and Women. Updated ed., HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.

Government Publication

Note: If author is a government agency: Name of Government, Name of Agency. Between them list any units of which the agency is a part. Arrange largest to smallest.

   California, Department of Industrial Relations.

   United States, Congress, House.

   ---, ---, Senate.

   ---, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Note: For bills, reports, or resolutions of the U.S. Congress, you may optionally include the number and session of Congress and the document's type and number.

United States, Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al-Qaeda: The Many Faces of an Islamist Extremist Threat. Government Printing Office, 2006. 109th Congress, 2nd session, House Report 615.


Note: Cite the same as a book with no author. If pamphlet has an author, cite author (last name, first name) or corporate author at beginning of entry.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Thesis or Dissertation

Note: Cite the same as a book. Conclude with document type (e.g., PhD dissertation). Degree-granting institution may be included before document type but is not required. If accessed in a database, the database would be considered a 2nd container.

Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. 2005. Ohio University, PhD dissertation.

Mitchell, Mark. The Impact of Product Quality Reducing Events on the Value of Broad-Name Capital: Evidence from Airline Crashes and the 1982 Tylenol Poisonings. 1987. PhD dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Conference Proceedings

Note: If date and location of conference are not in title, add after title.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location, Publisher, Date of publication.

Last Name, First Name, editor. Conference Title, Conference date, Conference location, Publisher, Date of publication.


Journal Article: General

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (volume and/or issue number), Publication date, Location (pp.). Title of 2nd container (i.e., database title), Other contributors, Version, Number, Publication date, Location.

Note: MLA does not require the publisher be listed for journals, magazines, or newspapers.

Print Journal Article

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp.193-200.

Journal Article with No Author

"Business: Global Warming's Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland." The Economist, 26 May 2007, p. 82.

Journal Article in a Database

Note: The article is contained within a journal (container) which is found in a database (2nd container).

Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR,

Online Journal with DOI

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Article in Online Journal

Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist--and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2016,

Magazine Article

Note: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Day Month Year, pages.

Reed, Stanley. “Seeing Past the War.” Business Week, 21 Aug. 2006, p. 35.

Newspaper Article

Note: Cite the same as a magazine article but note different pagination. If more than one edition for a day, cite edition after newpaper title.

Seward, Zachary. “Colleges Expand Early Admissions.” Wall Street Journal, eastern ed., 14 Dec. 2006, pp. D1-D2.

Note: For less well-known or local newspapers, add city name in brackets after newspaper title.

Trembacki, Paul. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette, IN], 5 Dec. 2000, p.20.


Note: For a review, cite title of review then the phrase "Review of" title of work. Provide performance and/or publication information.

Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living." Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.

Weiller, K. H. Review of Sport, Rhetoric, and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations, edited by Linda K. Fuller. Choice, Apr. 2007, p. 1377.

Editorial or Letter to the Editor

Note: Include "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work.

"Of Mines and Men." Editorial. Wall Street Journal, eastern ed., 24 Oct. 2003, p. A14.

Hamer, John. Letter. American Journalism Review, Dec. 2006/Jan. 2007, p. 7.


Electronic Sources: General

Author. "Title." Title of Work, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or issue no.),  Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). Title of 2nd Container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).


Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), Date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

Note: MLA recommends the inclusion of DOI/URLs, but follow your instructor's preference. Use DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) or permalinks (stable URLs) if available.

Liu, Alan, editor. Voice of the Shuttle. 21 Feb. 2008,

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literacy and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, Accessed 10 May 2006.

Note: For websites published by organizations, use the organization name as publisher. If publication involves two or more organizations, cite each of them, separating the names with a forward slash (/). If only one is the primary publisher, cite only that one.

Manifold Greatness: The Creation of the Afterlife of the King James Bible. Folger Shakespeare Library / Bodleian Libraries, U of Oxford / Harry Ransom Center, U of Texas, Austin,

Web Page

Note: List author if known, then specific page or article title.

Liu, Alan, editor. "Teaching Resources." Voice of the Shuttle, 21 Oct. 2016,

Article on a Website

Quade, Alex. "Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.", 19 Mar. 2007,

Article on a Website with No Author

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio, 20 July 2007,

Tweet (Twitter Post)

Twitter handle. "Entire Tweet." Twitter, Date of posting, Time of posting, URL.

@smithdogg. "This has sure been a hot summer." Twitter, 12 Aug. 2016, 2:36 p.m.,

Email Message

Note: Cite author of message, followed by subject line in quotation marks then to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent.

Boyle, Anthony T. "Re: Utopia." Received by Daniel J. Cahill, 21 June 1997.

Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting

Author. "Title of Posting." Name of Site, Version number, Institution/organization/publisher, URL. Date of access.

Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. "Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?" BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs...)

Note: End citation with name of digital format (e.g., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3).

Smith, George. "Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace." 2005. Microsoft Word file.

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. "Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing." CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011,


You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Image (including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)

Artist Name (Creator). Image (Work of Art) Title. Date of creation. Institution and city where work is housed, Website. Date of access.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Accessed 22 May 2006.

Photographic Reproduction of Artwork

For pictures of artwork in a book:

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, edited by Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, 10th ed., Harcourt Brace, p. 939.

Online Image

Note: Artist Name or Username. "Image Title." Website, Publication Date.

brandychloe. "Great Horned Owl Family." Webshots, 5 Nov. 2009.

Personal Interview

Bush, George W. Personal interview. 10 Feb. 2007.

Video on a Website

"Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Unaired Pilot 1996." YouTube, uploaded by Brian Stowe, 28 Jan. 2012,

Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." YouTube, 9 Sept. 2010,


Note: Include director, film studio or distributor, and release year. If relevant, list performer(s) after director name.

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1982.

Note: Begin citation with performer or director if you want to emphasize them.

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

TV Episode

“The Soup Nazi.” Seinfeld, season 7, episode 6, Castle Rock Entertainment, 2 Nov. 1995.

Note: If episode is from a collection, list title of collection, distributor name, and date of distribution.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

TV Series

David, Larry and Jerry Seinfeld, creators. Seinfeld. Castle Rock Entertainment, 2006.

TV Episode on DVD Set

"Hush." 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, episode 10, Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3.

TV Episode on Streaming Service

Note: The episode is contained within the show (container) which is contained within the streaming service (2nd container).

Note: Date of access may be used if it is an indicator of the version you used.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, Accessed 23 July 2013.


"Best of Not My Job Musicians." Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,

Individual Song

Note: Citing music depends on the container you access the music from:


Sinatra, Frank. “Strangers in the Night.” My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra, Warner, 1996.


Morris, Rae. "Skin." Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify,

Online Album:

Béyonce. "Pray You Catch Me." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,


Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.

Entire Album

The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band, Capitol Records, 1967.

Spoken Word Recording

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Narrated by Sally Darling, Recorded Books, 1988.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Oliver Ditson, 1932.


Note: Record the location of a performance by listing the venue and its city (omit city if part of venue name).

Irelan, Scott, director. RENT, performance by YSU University Theater, 16 Nov. 2012, Youngstown State University.

Lecture or Address

Note: Record the location of a lecture by listing the venue and its city (omit city if part of venue name).

Note: For unexpected works, such as a lecture or address, you may identify the type with a descriptive term.

Atwood, Margaret. "Silencing the Scream." Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec. 1993, Royal York Hotel, Toronto. Address.