The above topics all correspond to at least one of the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, which were adopted by the Association of College and Research Libraries. The Concepts are below:
Authority is Constructed and Contextual
- Who is considered an expert depends on the context of the need of information and who is doing the trusting.
- Authority exists because a community gives it to someone. This can be a problem if the information is based on bias or privilege.
- It is best to look at information skeptically, but also with an open mind.
Information Creation as a Process
- Information comes in many formats, so a good researcher looks beyond format to determine quality and content.
- Understanding the information process is vital to becoming information literate. Edited, reviewed information can often be viewed as the only information that is credible, however that is not always the case.
Information Has Value
- Information is created for educational, influential, and economic purposes. It is very important for individuals to understand that information is a high valued commodity.
- Information can be bought and sold, therefore it holds value.
- How information is created and disseminated is influenced by legal, economic and societal factors.
Research is Inquiry
- Information and knowledge is driven by asking questions that are increasingly more complex and layered.
- Research is not linear, but cyclical in nature, driving more questions from results and more research by curiosity.
- The more a researcher digs into the research process, the greater there knowledge of their topic and how information is created.
Scholarship is a Conversation
- Experts have been having scholarly debate over topics for a very long time, constantly adding to the conversation.
- Conclusions in scholarly conversation can change, based on perspective and new questions being asked.
- Depending on the question, there may be several answers.
- New ideas from previous knowledge/information must be attributed to the original creator/idea.
Searching is Strategic Exploration
- Determining a search strategy that allows for flexibility and added evaluation is key.
- Stay focused on the search, even as new ideas, topics and interesting information are found.
- Broadening the resources first found, while also asking a question in a different way will increase exploration